Lina Sturfelt: Introduction - Scandinavia and the First World War

In European history, 1914 is a symbolic milestone. The outbreak of the First World War marked a watershed, which, with the distance a century brings, is now often described as the actual starting point of the twentieth century, the ur-catastrophe. It also seems to be a war that we will never be finished with. The centenary has been widely marked, not least by the victors Britain and France, who have spent some 60 million euros on commemorating the anniversary. In Germany, however, interest has been that much weaker. In the UK, the anniversary prompted a heated debate about how war should be memorialized in the public sphere, to what purpose, and how its history should be taught. The current Conservative government’s more nationalist line is pointed up by the No Glory in War movement, which emphasizes the catastrophic and pointless character of the war. When in the summer of 2014 the EU Parliament debated the lessons to be learned from the First World War, the focus was on increased European integration and the threat to peace and stability posed by rising nationalism, but parallels were also drawn between 1914 and the present conflict in Ukraine. In Sarajevo, there was not just one ceremony to mark the centenary of the assassination of the Archduke, but two, because the Bosnian Serbs boycotted the official ceremony.[1] All these examples show that the First World War is very much a live conflict for many on the Continent.

In the Scandinavian countries, none of which took part in the war, memories of the First World War and its history are somewhat different. The purpose of this article is to provide an introduction to the Scandinavian research on the war.[2] I make no claim to be comprehensive. Rather, I want to present the main lines of research today and how they relate to the international field. By highlighting a selection of current concerns, I can also trace the main similarities and differences within Scandinavia. Finally, I discuss what is missing and outline some suggestions for future Scandinavian research themes.

A century on—Scandinavia and ‘the forgotten war’

In terms of the literature, the centenary has seen a spate of new books. The causes of the First World War and who was really to blame are among the most discussed of all historical questions. During the century that has passed, research on the war has grown into a truly immense field with innumerable sub-disciplines. New work is continuously produced reflecting its military, political, social, economic, and cultural significance.[3] Britain and France, and to a lesser extent Germany, have long been home to much of the research, but perspectives on the war have generally been strikingly national rather than pan-European or global. Studies of the war on the Western Front dominate. The literature has otherwise largely followed the standard trajectory of history writing—and, indeed, of the humanities in general—over the last century. Antoine Prost and Jay Winter write of three chronological, albeit partly overlapping, paradigms: military–diplomatic history, social history, and cultural history.[4]

The neutral countries’ war history has been largely overlooked, despite the fact they too were greatly affected by the conflict. This is especially true of the smaller European countries close to the fronts, such as Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. In Scandinavia, it is often referred to as ‘the forgotten war’. Bjarne Søndergaard Bendtsen even claims that since 1945 the Scandinavians have suffered from historical and cultural amnesia regarding the First World War, especially given the sheer significance of the Second World War. The ‘Great War’ is given remarkably short shrift by both the public and historians. It does not attract major research projects; it is barely mentioned in schools; historical textbooks rarely dwell on it. Knowledge of the First World War is generally poor in Scandinavia compared to the rest of Europe.[5]

Yet there may be signs that this is changing. Even Scandinavia in recent years—and especially in 2014—has seen a growing interest in the conflict on the part of researchers, museums, archives, media, and, yes, the public. Perhaps it is a sign of a growing Europeanization that the war is now featuring more in the Scandinavian historical consciousness. A few examples will suffice. The Swedish Army Museum and the National Library of Sweden marked the centenary with exhibitions about the Sarajevo assassination, the outbreak of war, and ways in which the war was represented in the contemporaneous European and Swedish media. Periodicals such as Respons, Parnass, and Historielärarnas förenings årsskrift (the History Teachers’ Association Yearbook) have all had special issues on the war.[6] ABF Stockholm (the Workers’ Educational Association branch in the capital) held a lecture series on the ‘twentieth century’s ur-catastrophe’. Media interest in the conflict has included imported television dramas such as the British series The Crimson Field, along with the likes of Swedish Television’s eight-part documentary Det stora kriget (The Great War), a co-production by 23 television companies, albeit with a Swedish angle at times. In the spring of 2014, the Fritt Ord Foundation in Norway offered a very ambitious public programme of seminars on the theme ‘The war to end all wars’, with lectures by prominent international scholars interspersed with film screenings and concerts. In Denmark, the war—‘Krig no 1’, or ‘War Number 1’—was the theme for the 2014 Golden Days Festival (with topics including ‘The ur-catastrophe’, ‘A Lilliputian country’, and ‘The shock of the new’). Based on the pan-European digitization project, ‘Europeana Collections 1914–1918’, the Danish Royal Library held a workshop on the impact of neutrality on Danes’ lives during the war. In August 2014, the Nordic region’s only First World War Museum opened in Mosede Fort, south of Copenhagen. Its focus is everyday life in Denmark during the war and the experience of wartime neutrality.[7]

In the very first week of the war, Norway, Denmark, and Sweden issued a joint declaration of neutrality, but the Scandinavian countries’ subsequent experiences were to differ. These national differences may go some way to explaining why the history of the First World War has been treated as it has in the three countries. The war is rarely the main topic, and more usually is the background or precursor to something else: in Sweden, universal suffrage; in Denmark, the division of Schleswig (the ‘reunification’). Culturally, it is taken as marking the advent of modernism. In all three countries, but especially in Norway and Denmark, the Second World War has long overshadowed it in both the public consciousness and academic history. Perhaps partly because of this, it seems the general interest in studying the First World War has thus far been greatest in Sweden and least in Norway, with Denmark somewhere in between.

Scandinavian research on the First World War in general

Several Scandinavian authors have published general histories of the war without focusing on the specifically Scandinavian experience. Among them are the works that have probably had the greatest influence on the Swedish historical consciousness, despite not being written by a professional historian: 1914 and Den okände soldaten (‘The Unknown Soldier’) by Jolo, the journalist Jan Olof Olsson, were first published in the mid-1960s, but have been reissued several times since, and are still read and referred to. Jolo was also among the first to write about the Swedish food riots in 1917 as the war dragged on.[8]

The 1990s saw a growing interest in the ramifications of wartime ideas and mentalities, especially the reactions in intellectual circles. This too is to be found in Scandinavian research. Svante Nordin published Filosofernas krig (‘The philosophers’ war’), a comparative study of European philosophy during the war, in 1998, a year that also saw the publication of Henrik Jensen’s Ofrets århundrede (‘The age of the victim’), which pinpoints the First World War as an epoch-making cultural and attitudinal moment. In 2004, Jens Ljunggren tackled the intellectual history of the period from a different perspective—one informed by gender history and the affective turn. In Känslornas krig (‘Warring emotions’) he analyses the German elite through the lens of masculinity, looking at various normative discourses about gender before, during, and after the war, and remaining largely critical of the mainstream masculinity research on the period by the likes of Klaus Theweleit and George L. Mosse. In early 2014, Adam Paulsen published Overvindelsen af første verdenskrig (‘Overcoming the First World War’), which addresses the cultural aftermath of the war in Germany by looking at the historical approaches of Ernst Troeltsch, Oswald Spengler, and Thomas Mann.[9]

The centenary has resulted in several new monographs and articles. Peter Olausson and Andreas Danielsen have offered their own interpretations of the causes of the war and the questions of motive and guilt. Henrik Jensen has published Krigen 1914–1918 og hvordan den forandrede verden (‘The 1914–1918 war and how it changed the world’). Marco Smedberg’s Första världskriget (‘The First World War’) is an account of the war in toto, primarily from the perspective of military history. Nils Arne Sørensen, who has published extensively on the war for an international audience, issued a revised edition of his magnum opus of 2005, Den store krig: Europærnes Første Verdenskrig (‘The Great War: The Europeans’ First World War’). In addition to the causes and course of the war, he also discusses the history of its reception and especially the culture of memory, and he has added a new chapter that deals specifically with Denmark.[10]

Another example of a Scandinavian book that falls into the two ever expanding fields of First World War memorialization and materiality is the battlefield archaeologist Nils Fabian’s Historien om västfronten (‘The History of the Western Front’), which looks at war cemeteries, monuments, and other physical remains. Ulf Zander, meanwhile, has recently analysed the history of the war’s reception in film and television, and a similar perspective can be found in Klas-Göran Karlsson’s new book Urkatastrofen: Första världskrigets plats i den moderna historien (‘The ur-catastrophe: The place of the First World War in modern history’).[11] It is noticeable that in Sweden in particular, several historians have now adopted the term ‘ur-catastrophe’, borrowed from the controversial brutalization thesis advanced by George L. Mosse, Omer Bartov, Stéphane Adouin-Rouzeau, Annette Becker, and others, who see a clear connection between the two world wars. In essence, their argument is that the violent excesses of the First World War, a truly total war, spilled over into political brutality and on to totalitarianism, genocide, and ultimately the Second World War, and that the war which began in August 1914 in some senses did not end until the fall of the USSR in 1991.[12]

Of the Scandinavian scholars to have published on the First World War, the Swedish Academy’s current permanent secretary, Peter Englund, is the most acclaimed internationally. Englund’s micro-historical project Stridens skönhet och sorg (The Beauty and the Sorrow) from 2008 is a history of the war from below, using the disparate voices of ordinary people who took part, but without an overarching perspective or narrative per se. The book has been translated into a large number of languages (including Danish and Norwegian), and has been hailed for its originality by critics. A new, enlarged edition is now underway, to be issued in each of the centenary years until 2018.[13]

Scandinavia and the war—political, military, and social history

The Scandinavian research on wartime foreign policy and diplomatic history has little to show from the last half a century or more. The standard works on foreign policy and neutrality in Sweden and Norway were written back in the 1950s and 1960s, for example. The honourable exception is Karen Gram-Skjoldager’s recent research on Denmark’s internationalist foreign policy of 1889–1939, in which the First World War plays a central role.[14]

When it comes to military history, however, there has been a fair amount of new research in the past few years. In Denmark, Michael H. Clemmesen has led the way with several works on the period. In conjunction with an exhibition at Greve Museum in 2010, there was also a publication that focuses on the everyday lives of those serving in the wartime defence forces. In Norway, there is Rolf Hobson and Tom Kristiansen’s Norsk forsvarshistorie (‘Norwegian defence history’) of 2001. In Sweden, there is a 1994 anthology Mellan björnen och örnen (‘Between the bear and the eagle’) on Sweden and the Baltic region during the war, mainly from a military perspective. Very recently, Thomas Roth has mapped the domestic and external military threats during the war, and Carl Henrik Carlsson has analysed how immigration policy, policing, and questions about Swedish citizenship were affected by closed national borders in wartime.[15]

Because of its strategic location and neutral position, Scandinavia became something of a Mecca for spies, especially the three capitals. This significant aspect of the war has caught the interest of the Norwegian historians Nik Brandal and Ola Teige, who have studied the belligerents’ secret services and Norwegian counterintelligence. Claes Ahlund, meanwhile, has studied spies in wartime from a different angle—as a popular trope in the penny dreadfuls of the day.[16]

In Sweden, the First World War usually served as a backdrop for accounts of other historical developments, mostly in domestic politics—the food crisis, for example, the food riots of 1917, or the associated democratic reforms—most recently in the journalist Per T. Ohlsson’s Svensk politik (‘Swedish politics’). Similarly, Jan Eric Olsén has investigated Sweden’s food crisis from a different angle, investigating how the image of society as a body was used in Sweden during this period of scarcity.[17]

The First World War thus also reshaped the relationship between state and society. The history of various social movements during the war, especially the peace movement, has thus caught the attention of Scandinavian researchers. Irene Andersson, for example, has written about the Women’s Peace Sunday campaign of 1915, and Per Jostein Ringby about the collaboration between the various Scandinavian peace societies. As already noted, the war also had an abiding impact on notions of gender and of women’s and men’s obligations in wartime. The exact form this took in neutral Sweden has been studied by Charlotte Tornbjer, Madelene Lidestad, and me, among others.[18]

Anyone wanting a broader overview of the Scandinavian countries during the war must turn to the older literature. For Sweden, Nils Olof Franzén’s popular history, Undan stormen (1986, ‘Safe from the storm’) is still one of the best introductions; for Norway there is Per Vogt’s Jerntid og jobbetid (‘Age of iron, age of profiteering’) of 1938; and for Denmark, Lars Lindberg’s De så det ske (‘They saw it happen’) of 1966, tracing the impact of war on the country at the everyday level.[19]

Being there—research about Scandinavians at the front

A key international trend in First World War research has been the focus on the individual soldiers’ war experiences, as found in correspondence, army newspapers, memoirs, and diaries. In Scandinavia this is mostly evident in Denmark, which differed from the other two countries in the sense that a large national minority actually joined in the fighting. The majority of the Danish accounts of the First World War have thus touched on the question of Southern Jutland and its Danish-minded population’s experiences fighting in the German armed forces. Even so, it was not until well into the twenty-first century that the first anthology on the subject was published, although it was soon followed by the first major monograph on the soldiers of Southern Jutland (or North Schleswig, depending on one’s point of view): Claus Bundgard Christensen’s acclaimed Danskere på Vestfronten 1914–1918 (‘Danes on the Western Front, 1914–1918’).  Bjarne Søndergaard Bendtsen too has considered the ways in which the region’s Danish minority and other Danish volunteers featured in the literature of the day.[20]

There is also ongoing research on emigrants of Scandinavian origin who fought for their new countries, particularly the US. Eirik Brazier has studied emigrant Scandinavians who enlisted in the Australian Army during the war, while there are a number of general histories and case studies of individual Scandinavians who chose to volunteer.[21]

A discursive war—a cultural history

Scandinavia’s press, censorship, and propaganda during the First World War have been thoroughly investigated. Much of the work done in Sweden on political opinion has focused on activists and the ideas current in 1914. Among the more recent research is Ulrik Lehrmann’s study of photojournalism and visual representations of the war in the Danish weekly and daily press, with an eye to their Swedish equivalents. Johan Östling, in turn, has studied radical public opinion in Sweden during the war.[22]

These apart, it has been the cultural turn that has caused the biggest stir among Scandinavian, and especially Swedish, historians working on the First World War. The intense discursive war that raged around the world, neutral countries included, is central here. The cultural perspective, with an interdisciplinary analysis of societal notions of war and discourses of war in the press, literature, cinema, art, and so on, was long lacking in Scandinavian research. Here it was the literary historians who led the way with what is internationally a major research field. Ten years ago, inspired primarily by British research on the subject, Claes Ahlund put together one of the few funded research projects on Sweden and the First World War. The result was Diktare i krig (‘Poets at war’), a monograph about the authors K. G. Ossiannilsson, Bertil Malmberg, and Ture Nerman; Underhållning och propaganda (‘Entertainment and propaganda’) about the popular military fiction by Radscha (Iwan Aminoff); and several articles about Sweden’s ‘mental militarization’ and depictions of war in popular literature, such as invasion novels and spy novels—the latter treated from a comparative Scandinavian perspective. In 2009, Sofi Qvarn’s dissertation Motståndets berättelser (‘Resistance stories’) was published, in which she examines how criticism of the war was depicted in Elin Wägner’s, Anna Lenah Elgström’s, and Marika Stiernstedt’s texts and the possibilities open to literature to serve as a form of resistance.[23]

My own thesis from 2008, Eldens återsken: Första världskriget i svensk föreställningsvärld (‘Reflections of fire: Images of the First World War in Sweden’) considers much the same area as Ahlund and Qvarnström, looking at the Swedish press coverage of the war and neutrality between 1914 and 1918, and its links to Sweden’s self-image. I go on to outline the essentials of the war’s Swedish reception in the interwar period by looking at how war memories were managed along the same lines seen in Swedish fiction and poetry, quite apart from a film campaign by Svenska Freds- och Skiljedomsföreningen (the Swedish Peace and Arbitration Society). There is also David Larsson Heidenblad’s dissertation Vårt eget fel (‘All our own fault’) from 2012, with its chapter on Swedish reactions to the outbreak of war and related notions of war in the daily press and in the Church.[24]

In Denmark too, this form of cultural research has left its mark. Bjarne Søndergaard Bendtsen has analysed depictions of war in Danish culture in 1914–1939 in his dissertation Mellem fronterne (‘Between the fronts’), using literature but also various sorts of press material, film, and vaudeville. His is a very rich source material, a veritable gold mine for anyone wanting to research Denmark and the First World War. The centenary saw the publication of Martin Zerlang’s 1914, with its investigation of the ideological and cultural climate in Denmark and Europe as a whole, centred on a number of contemporary cultural figures who would all be eyewitnesses to this cultural tipping point. His approach is reminiscent of Peter Englund’s, but Zerlang also sees 1914 as the key to both the modern worldview and the image of modern Denmark.[25]

A Scandinavian perspective on the war?

Even though research about the First World War in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden is no longer the quiet backwater it once was, comparative research on Scandinavia and the war is still virtually non-existent, leaving the picture one of essentially parallel national histories. The work often held up as the main comparative survey—Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland in the World War—was published in collaboration with the Carnegie Foundation way back in 1930.[26] Then in 2009 the ‘Network for the Study of Neutral Scandinavia in the First World War’ was established—an international, interdisciplinary network led by Claes Ahlund and financed by Riksbankens Jubileumsfond—which has thus far resulted in an English-language anthology, Scandinavia in the First World War (2012), offering a variety of perspectives on Scandinavia and the war, and to my knowledge the first of its kind in a very long time. Its introduction emphasizes both the differences between the three Scandinavian countries’ wartime policies and experiences—with Norway as Britain’s ‘neutral ally’ and Sweden as Germany’s—and the various national historiographies. The authors prefer to speak of neutralities in the plural, which of course immediately begs the question of whether it is either possible or meaningful to talk of a shared Scandinavian war experience.[27]

It is interesting to compare the more traditional political–diplomatic and military research (on which the anthology’s introduction builds) with Bendtsen’s cultural focus. His stated concern is Denmark, but he also draws a great many comparisons with the other Scandinavian countries, taking, for example, black marketeers as a symbol of the war and a specifically Nordic war experience. On the cultural and mental plane, however, he stresses the similarities between the Scandinavian countries’ experiences of war, not least Denmark’s and Sweden’s.[28] I would agree that the First World War was subsequently framed in similar terms in both countries, but it was as an aside, a storm that raged beyond their borders, while their own little idyll continued largely undisturbed. It should be noted that the similarities between the neutral and the combatant countries appear to have been greatest on the cultural level, and that these studies also bring home the First World War’s relevance and impact on Scandinavian society.

Of course, Scandinavia is not the only starting point for such comparisons, or even the most self-evident. Other neutral countries in Europe such as the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain are often referred to in comparative histories. The neutral countries’ experience of the First World War is a relatively new but growing field.[29] Just as in the case of the history of the First World War in general, historians need to lift their eyes beyond the belligerents and the battlefields. Most of those working in the field would agree that the First World War left a deep impression, above all in the interwar period, even in neutral Scandinavia. It deserves to be studied in its own right, not just as a backdrop or prelude to other historical events. Certainly, it would seem there is much still to do, especially when it comes to the comparative perspective. The research has adopted a slightly different focus in each of the three countries, while in Norway the general interest in the war is that much lower. The English-language research has influenced contemporary Scandinavian research much more than, say, the French and German, and that too inevitably skews the perspective.

Finally, I would like to highlight some of the themes and problems that warrant greater attention. The First World War is often said to have given Scandinavism a new lease of life, but how and in what contexts remains to be determined. When it comes to cultural history, we still know relatively little about notions of war in film and the visual arts. The history of the many Scandinavian war correspondents is patchy at best.[30] Everyday life in Scandinavia during the war—both for those serving in the military and for civilians—has not been much explored. Even new interpretations of key political developments and the political culture would be welcome. Largely thanks to their neutral position, the Scandinavian countries took the lead in various humanitarian efforts on an entirely new level and scale, both during and after the war. This early transnational and humanitarian assistance deserves to be studied in detail.[31] Finally, cultural history promises to be a fruitful and exciting avenue of research on the war and Scandinavia alike. The war’s reception in terms of the culture of memory is an interesting field that would be suitable for comparisons over time and place, and where civilians add another dimension. In answering the questions of how, when, and why people remembered the war, one can consider its interpretation by historians, the dominant schools of thought, how memories of the war have been communicated in schools, in the media, and in museums, and how this has changed over the century since the outbreak of the war.[32]

The First World War created our world. For a better understanding of the conflict in all its complexity, as well as its place in twentieth-century history right up to the present day, the neutral countries’ experiences must also be taken into account. If Scandinavians are to understand their history and how they became who they are, the history of the First World War must be written in as the central historical event it undoubtedly was, whether from a Scandinavian, a European, or a global perspective. The fact that several Scandinavian researchers now choose to speak of ‘the Great War’ rather than the better-established ‘First World War’ perhaps signals a new insight into this war’s enduring significance for Scandinavia.

Scandinavia and the First World War

The centenary of the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 has spurred a lively public and academic debate about the conflict’s role in shaping the twentieth century and the European present. This article examines the war from a slightly different perspective, taking as its point of departure the impact of the war on neutral Scandinavia and its place in contemporary Scandinavian historical consciousness and historiography. After a long period of being ‘the forgotten war’, there now seems to be a new interest in this conflict in Scandinavia. The article offers a first introduction to the Scandinavian research on the First World War and how it relates to international trends and developments within the immense field of the First World War studies. It contains a short review of studies of the war in general by Scandinavian historians, but the main focus is on the topic of Scandinavia and the war. The overview is structured along a couple of key themes or areas of interest that have been prominent in the Scandinavian war historiography: political, military and social history; studies of Scandinavians at the fronts; and cultural history. The interdisciplinary nature of the last is underlined, as literary scholars rather than historians have been crucial in introducing and developing this important field in Scandinavia. Although some tentative national differences and similarities between Denmark, Sweden and Norway are underlined, the article highlights the lack of more comparative studies on Scandinavia and the war and the need for further investigations. Finally, some relevant areas and topics for future research are suggested, such as the cultural impact of the war on Scandinavia, the early Scandinavian humanitarianism in the wake of the war, and studies of the aftermath of the war—the place of the First World War in Scandinavian history culture and memory during the last century. For a deeper understanding of the complexity of this seminal historical event and its meaning, the neutral war experiences ought to be taken into account. It is time for historians to study the war and its impact on Scandinavia in its own right, not as a mere background or anacrusis to other historical developments.

Keywords: First World War, Scandinavia, centenary, historiography, neutrals

 

Lina Sturfelt

Assistant Professor of Human Rights Studies at Lund University

 



[1] Philip Oltermann, ‘Germany’s low-key plans for the First World War centenary criticised’, The Guardian 2 March 2014; ‘The First World War Centenary’, www.gov.uk (1 October 2014); ‘No Glory in War 1914–1918’, www.noglory.org (1 October 2014); for the debate in the UK, see also Ulf Zander, ‘Första världskriget på film och i television’, Historielärarnas förenings årsskrift 2014 (HLFÅ), Stockholm 2014, 147; ‘100 år efter första världskriget: ‘Fred och stabilitet får aldrig tas för givet’, www.europarl.europa.eu, (1 October 2014); Mia Holmgren, ‘Skotten splittrar ännu Sarajevo’, Dagens Nyheter 28 June 2014.

[2] For recent surveys of the field, see Claes Ahlund (ed.), Scandinavia in the First World War: Projektrapport (Stockholm 2012), 36–9; Bjarne Søndergaard Bendtsen, Mellem fronterne: Studier i Første Verdenskrigs virkning på og udtryk i dansk kultur (Odense 2011), 9–45; Lina Sturfelt, Eldens återsken: Första världskriget i svensk föreställningsvärld (Lund 2008), 32–4; Kent Zetterberg, Konsten att överleva: Studier i Sveriges försvar, strategi och säkerhetspolitik under 200 år (Stockholm 2007).

[3] The purpose of the International Society for First World War Studies and its periodical, First World War Studies, is to stay abreast of current research. The society’s website is a useful source of information about research on the conflict, see www.firstworldwarstudies.org, s.v. ‘Bibliography’ (1 October 2014); see also, 1914–1918-online: International Encyclopedia of the First World War, www.1914-1918-online.net (13 October 2014); Gerhard Hirschfeld et al. (eds.) Enzyklopädie Erster Weltkrig (Pederborn 2003); Jean-Jaques Becker & Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau (eds.) Encyklopedie de la grande guerre: 1914–1918 (Paris 2004); Antoine Prost & Jay Winter, The Great War in History: Debates and Controversies, 1914 to the Present (New Haven 2005). For a recent survey in Swedish, see Rudberg & Skoog 2012.

[4] Prost & Winter 2005.

[5] Bendtsen 2011, 3, 312; Sturfelt 2008, 32–4, 358–9; Martin Zerlang, 1914 (Copenhagen 2014).

[7] ‘Långt ifrån fredligt’, www.smhf.se; ‘1914—det händelserika lugnet före stormen’, www.smhf.se; ‘När kriget kom till Sverige. Föreställningar om första världskriget 1914–1918’, www.kb.se; ‘Tema: 1914 och första världskriget’, Parnass 3 (2014); ‘Tema Europas urkatastrof’, Respons 4 (2014); ‘Tema: Första världskriget’, Historielärarnas förenings årsskrift 2014 (Lund 2014); ‘1900-talets urkatastrof’, www.abfstockholm.se; ‘Det blodröda fältet’, www.svt.se; ‘Det stora kriget. Vittnesmål från första världskriget’, www.svt.se; ‘The War to End All Wars’, www.fritt-ord.no; ‘Krig no 1’, www. goldendaysfestival.dk; ‘Ned med våbnene! Neutralitetens spor i danskernes liv under Første Verdenskrig’, www.europeana-collections-1914-1918.eu; ‘Mosede Fort. Danmark 1914–18’, www.danmark1914-18.dk. (All 1 October 2014.)

[8] Jan Olof Olsson, 1914 (Stockholm 1964); Jan Olof Olsson, Den okände soldaten 1914–1918 (Stockholm 1965); Jan Olof Olsson, Rivna fanor (Stockholm 1975).

[9] Svante Nordin, Filosofernas krig: Den europeiska filosofin under första världskriget (Nora 1998); Henrik Jensen, Ofrets århundrede (Copenhagen 1998); Jens Ljunggren, Känslornas krig: Första världskriget och den tyska bildningselitens androgyna manlighet (Stockholm & Stehag 2004); Adam Paulsen, Overvindelsen af første verdenskrig: Historiepolitik hos Ernst Troeltsch, Oswald Spengler och Thomas Mann (Copenhagen 2014).

[10] Peter Olausson, 1914: Vägen till första världskriget (Stockholm 2014); Andreas Danielsen, Hederskriget: Hur Österrike-Ungern startade första världskriget (Stockholm 2014); Henrik Jensen, Krigen 1914–1918 og hvordan den forandrede verden (Copenhagen 2014); Marco Smedberg, Första världskriget (Lund 2014); Nils Arne Sørensen, Den store krig: Europærnes Første Verdenskrig (Copenhagen 2014). See also Søren Mørch, Den store krig (Copenhagen 2014); Hedvig Rudling, Djur i krigets öga: Om djur och soldater i första världskriget (Stockholm 2014).

[11] Nils Fabiansson, Historien om västfronten: I spåren av första världskriget (Stockholm 2014); Zander 2014; Klas-Göran Karlsson, Urkatastrofen: Första världskrigets plats i den moderna historien (Stockholm 2014); see also Paulsen 2014.

[12] See Prost & Winter 2005, 180–1.

[13] Peter Englund, Stridens skönhet och sorg: Första världskriget i 212 korta kapitel (Stockholm 2008); Peter Englund, Stridens skönhet och sorg 1914: Första världskrigets inledande år i 68 korta kapitel (Stockholm 2014), 1–2, 7–8.

[14] Torsten Gihl, Den svenska utrikespolitikens historia, iv: 1914–1919 (Stockholm 1951); Wilhelm Carlgren, Neutralität oder Allianz? Deutschlands Beziehungen zu Schweden in den Anfangsjahren des Ersten Weltkrieges (Stockholm 1962); Wilhelm Carlgren, Ministären Hammarskjöld: Tillkomst–söndring–fall: Studier i svensk politik 1914–1917 (Uppsala 1967); Steven Koblik, Sweden: The Neutral Victor: Sweden and the Western Powers 1917–1918 (Lund 1972); Olav Riste, The Neutral Ally: Norway’s Relations with the Belligerent Powers in the First World War (Oslo 1965); Karen Gram-Skjoldager, Fred och folkerett: Dansk internasjonalistisk udenrigspolitik 1889–1939 (Copenhagen 2012).

[15] Michael H. Clemmesen, The Danish Armed Forces 1909–1918: Between Politicians and Strategic Reality (Copenhagen 2007); Michael H. Clemmesen, Den lange vej mod 9. April: Historien om de fyrre år før den tyske operation mod Norge og Danmark i 1940 (Odense 2010); Michael H. Clemmesen, Det lille land før den store krig: De danske farvande, stormagtsstrategier, efterretninger og forsvarsforberedelser omkring kriserne 1911–1913 (Odense 2012); Jens Ole Christensen, Michael H. Clemmesen & Ole L. Frantzen (eds.), Københavns befæstning. Til fædrelandets forsvar (Copenhagen 2012); Henriette Buus (ed.), Første verdenskrig ved Tunestillingen: Forsvarsvilje og hverdagsliv (Greve 2010); Rolf Hobson & Tom Kristiansen, Norsk forsvarshistorie: Total krig, nøytralitet og politisk splittelse (Oslo 2001); Johan Engström & Lars Ericson (eds.), Mellan björnen och örnen: Sverige och Östersjön under det första världskriget 1914–1918 (Visby 1994); Thomas Roth, ‘Sverige och första världskriget—yttre och inre hot’, HLFÅ 2014; Carl Henrik Carlsson, ‘Att få bli en riktig svensk: Invandringspolitik, utlänningskontroll och medborgarskap kring tiden för första världskriget’, HLFÅ 2014; see also Ahlund (ed.) 2012; Rudberg & Skoog 2012, 36–9 and the references cited there.

[16] Nik. Brandal & Ola Teige, ‘The secret battlefield: Intelligence and counter-intelligence in Scandinavia during the First World War’ in Ahlund (ed.) 2012; Claes Ahlund, ‘Rats and anthills: The First World War in the Scandinavian spy novel’, in Ahlund (ed.) 2012.

[17] Carl Göran Andræ, Revolt eller reform: Sverige inför revolutionerna i Europa 1917–1918 (Stockholm 1998); Yvonne Hirdman, Magfrågan: Mat som mål och medel: Stockholm 1870–1920 (Stockholm 1983); Per T. Ohlsson, Svensk politik (Lund 2014); Jan Eric Olsén, ‘Första världskrigets näringskris: Medicin, politik och preparat’, in Mats Arvidson, Ursula Geisler & Kristofer Hansson (eds.), Kris och kultur: Kulturvetenskapliga perspektiv på kunskap, estetik och historia (Lund 2013).

[18] Irene Andersson, Kvinnor mot krig: Aktioner och nätverk för fred 1914–1940 (Lund 2001); Per Jostein Ringby, ‘Scandinavian collaboration for peace during the First World War’, in Ahlund (ed.) 2012; Charlotte Tornbjer, Den nationella modern: Moderskap i konstruktioner av svensk nationell gemenskap under 1900-talets första hälft (Lund 2002); Madelene Lidestad, Uppbåd, uppgifter, undantag: Om genusarbetsdelning i Sverige under första världskriget (Stockholm 2005); Lina Sturfelt, ‘Den andras lidande: Kvinnor som våldsoffer och förövare i första världskriget’, in Eva Österberg & Marie Lindstedt Cronberg (eds.), Kvinnor och våld: En mångtydig kulturhistoria (Lund 2005); see also Eva Helen Ulvros, ‘ “Man kan inte tiga… Sophie Elkan och fredsfrågan’, in Österberg & Lindstedt Cronberg (eds.) 2005.

[19] Nils Olof Franzén, Undan stormen: I Sverige under första världskriget (Stockholm 1986; republished 2001 as I Sverige under första världskriget: Undan stormen); Per Vogt, Jerntid och jobbetid: En skildring av Norge under verdenskrigen (Oslo 1938); Lars Lindeberg, De så det ske: Danmark under 1. verdenskrig 1914-18 og Genforeningen 1920 skildret af samtidige, soldater og civile, journalister, forfattere, digtere, malere, tegnere og fotografer (Copenhagen 1966).

[20] Inge Adriansen & Hans Schultz Hansen (eds.), Sønderjyderne og Den store krig 1914–1918 (Åbenrå 2006); Claus Bundgård Christensen, Danskere på Vestfronten 1914–1918 (Copenhagen 2009); Bendtsen 2011.

[21] Eirik Brazier, ‘The Scandinavian Diggers: Foreign-born soldiers in the Australian Imperial Force, 1914–1918’, in Ahlund (ed.) 2012; Lars Ericson Wolke, Svenska frivilliga: Militära uppdrag i utlandet under 1800- och 1900-talen (Lund 1996); Lars Gyllenhaal & Lars Westberg, Svenskar i krig 1914–1945 (Lund 2006); Rudberg & Skoog 2012, 38–9 and the references cited there.

[22] Gunilla Lundström, Per Rydén & Elisabeth Sandlund, Den svenska pressens historia: 3. Det moderna Sveriges spegel (1897–1945) (Stockholm 2001); Rune Ottesen & Hans Fredrik Dahl (eds.), Norsk presses historie (Oslo 2010); Svenbjörn Kilander, Censur och propaganda: Svensk informationspolitik under 1900-talets första decennier (Uppsala 1981); Jarl Torbacke, ‘The German infiltration of the Swedish press during the early stages of the First World War’, in Engström & Ericson (eds.) 1994; Tyrgils Saxlund, 1914 års idéer: En studie i svensk litteratur (Stockholm 1975); Inger Schubert, Schweden und das Deutsche Reich im Ersten Weltkrieg: Die Aktivistenbewegung 1914–1918 (Bonn 1981); Mart Kuldkepp, ‘Sweden’s historical mission and First World War: A regionalist theory of Swedish activism’, Scandinavian Journal of History, 1/39 (2014); Michael Jonas, ‘Activism, diplomacy and Swedish-German relations during the First World War, New Global Studies, 8/1 (2014); Ulrik Lehrmann, ‘An album of war: The visual mediation of the First World War in Danish magazines and daily newspapers’, in Ahlund (ed.) 2012; Johan Östling, Frisinnets krig: Den kulturradikala svenska opinionen under första världskriget (Uppsala 2002).

[23] Claes Ahlund, Diktare i krig: K. G. Ossiannilsson, Bertil Malmberg och Ture Nerman från debuten till 1920 (Hedemora 2007); Claes Ahlund, Underhållning och propaganda: Radschas (Iwan Aminoffs) romaner om första världskriget 1914–1915 (Uppsala 2010); Claes Ahlund, ‘En mental miltarisering: Den svenska litteraturen före och under första världskriget’, Samlaren (2003), 134–57; Claes Ahlund, ‘Den svenska invasionsberättelsen—en bortglömd litteratur’, Tidskrift för litteraturvetenskap, 3 (2003), 82–103; Sofi Qvarnström, Motståndets berättelser: Elin Wägner, Anna Lenah Elgström, Marika Stiernstedt och första världskriget (Hedemora & Möklinta 2009).

[24] Sturfelt 2008; David Larsson Heidenblad, Vårt eget fel: Moralisk kausalitet som tankefigur från 00-talets klimatlarm till förmoderna syndastraffsföreställningar (Höör 2012).

[25] Bendtsen 2011; Zerlang 2014; see also Jesper Düring Jörgensen, Den smilende kamæleon: Karl Larsen (1860–1931)—digter, journalist, militarist (Copenhagen 2013).

[26] Eli F. Heckscher, Kurt Bergendal, Wilhelm Keilhau, Einar Cohn & Thorsteinn Thorsteinsson, Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland in the World War (New Haven 1930); see also Patrick Salmon, Scandinavia and the Great Powers, 1890–1940 (Cambridge 1997).

[27] Claes Ahlund, ‘Förord’, in Ahlund (ed.) 2012, 7–8, 26; Rolf Hobson, Tom Kristiansen, Nils Arne Sörensen & Gunnar Åselius, ‘Introduction: Scandinavia in the First World War’, in Ahlund (ed.) 2012, 9–56.

[28] Bendtsen 2011, 316.

[29] See, for example, Johan den Hertog & Samuël Kruizinga (eds.), Caught in the Middle: Neutrals, Neutrality and the First World War (Amsterdam 2011); Bendtsen 2011, 15–16, 306–311; www.firstworldwarstudies.org, s.v. ‘Bibliography—Neutral States’ (1 October 2014).

[30] See, for example, Qvarnström 2009; Oscar Österberg, ‘Sven Hedin på östfronten’, in Roger Gyllin, Ingvar Svanberg & Ingmar Söhrman (eds.), Bröd och salt: Svenska kulturkontakter med öst (Uppsala 1998).

[31] This is the line taken in Första världskriget i svenska arkiv (Stockholm 2014), the most recent volume in the Riksarkivet och Landsarkivens årsbok series that focuses on primary source material about the war to be found in Swedish archives, in so doing promoting the in-depth study of Sweden during the First World War.

[32] See also Rudberg & Skoog 2012, 47–9.